Infusion Promises API

Promises are a now widespread programming construct aiming to simplify coding of complex workflows involving values which may be available asynchronously (perhaps as a result of requiring I/O) or fallibly. JavaScript enjoys numerous competing libraries implementing this feature, such as when.js, Q and Bluebird as well as even multiple competing promise standards, such as Promises/A+ and others from CommonJS. Promises are even built into an upcoming version of the JavaScript language itself, ES6.

Infusion required an extremely simple implementation which can evolve independently, as well as begin the process of merging with the general declarative facilities of Infusion IoC and hence become invisible as code. The implementation described here is a transitional, mostly procedural system on its way to being summarised as configuration - as numerous Infusion features have been in their turn over the years.

Notes on interoperability

As commented below, Infusion promises have taken a different set of tradeoffs to many of those elsewhere in the industry. In terms of interoperability, Infusion promises are at least universally recognised as a "foreign thenable" and hence can be easily adapted into promises of any of the other libraries. In terms of promise algorithms, since Infusion promises meet a weaker contract than usual, Infusion promises cannot safely be supplied to the promise algorithms of other libraries without adaptation. However, promises from foreign libraries can easily be used within Infusion's algorithms.

Core Promises API

In our implementation/interpretation, a promise is, in terms of familiar constructions such as events,

  • A linked pair of event firers, named resolve and reject
  • At most one of these two events can be fired, at most one time in total
  • Any listeners registered to either of the events after the point of firing will be able to recover the (unique) fired value at the point of registration

Note that this description does not adequately account for the features of specification-conformant promises more widely used in the industry - since these implement chaining and asynchronous behaviours which we do not implement.


  • Returns: {Promise}

Construct a fresh promise. This is the only point at which fresh promises are constructed within the core API. The structure of the returned {Promise} object comprises the following four members:

promise.then(onResolve, onReject)

Adds handlers to either or both of the resolve or reject actions of the promise. Note that if the promise has already been rejected or resolved, the appropriate handler will be notified immediately on this registration.

  • onResolve: {Function ({Any}) → {None}} A callback to receive the successfully resolved value of the promise
  • onReject: {Function ({Error}) → {None}} A callback to receive a rejection of the promise, in the case its resolution fails.


Resolves the promise successfully, yielding the value value to any listeners which were previously registered as the first argument of promise.then. Any further attempts to call either resolve or reject will signal an assertion failure.

  • value: {Any} The value to be supplied as the resolution value of the promise


Rejects the promise, yielding the error error to any listeners which were previously registered as the second argument of promise.then. Any further attempts to call either resolve or reject will signal an assertion failure.

  • error: {Object|Error} The value to be supplied as the rejection reason for the promise. It is recommended that this be an object with a boolean entry isError: true and a String message summarising the reason for the rejection.


The current disposition of the promise may be inspected at any time. This is a String value which encodes which, if any, of resolve or reject have been received by the promise. At the fresh construction of the promise, the member disposition holds the value undefined. If the promise has received resolve, disposition will hold the string "resolve", or if the promise has received reject, disposition will hold the string "reject".

Commentary on requirements

As well as evolvability and enormous simplicity, we had a couple of other somewhat soft requirements - readability, and debuggability. Modern promise specifications actually require that fresh promises are constructed at every chaining point, and that every promise resolves asynchronously even if its resolving value is available synchronously. Our implementation guarantees that no promise is constructed unless there is an explicit call to the constructor fluid.promise(). Thus it is easy to see at a glance exactly how many promises are in play in a given piece of code. Secondly, our implementation will synchronously relay a value which is available synchronously - this means that in the debugger, or other source of stack traces, the maximal size of stack will be visible to account for the cause of the promise resolution.

Plenty of arguments exist against these choices - in fact, these choices place us firmly in the category of people who "don't really understand promises and think of them as glorified ... callback aggregators". In the meantime, we have work to do. Infusion is about the elimination of code, and so we only have limited time to spend thinking about how to make the code we do have conform to a faulty ideal of what we dreamed that the virtues of conventional, synchronous code might once have been. However, it's worth noting that there is at least one virtue of conventional, synchronous code that is recaptured by no other promise system but ours. Also, this github issue attached to the A+ promises specification is a useful source of convincing argumentation that the decision in favour of universally asynchronous resolution is flawed.

As a further landmark for discussion, note that in terms of the following very illuminating category theoretic treatment of promises (itself rejected by mainstream promises proponents), our then method is very definitely not "the name for flatMap". Our then method is simply a "glorified callback aggregator".

The implementation skeleton for Infusion's promises was taken from a code sample by John Hann (unscriptable) in this gist - full credit and thanks, and please read the gist for some further commentary and coverage of limitations.

Core Promises Utility API

The library implements a few utilities without which it is inconvenient to use promises:


  • totest {Any} An object to be checked for being a promise
  • Returns: {Boolean} If totest has a member then of type Function, returns true.

Determines whether an object is a promise, for our purposes. Any object with a member then of type Function passes this test. This includes essentially every known variety, including jQuery promises. This test in fact identifies what in other libraries is termed a "foreign thenable".


  • value {Any} A value to be converted ("hoisted") to a promise
  • Returns: {Promise} If the supplied value is already a promise, it is returned unchanged. Otherwise a fresh promise is created with the value as resolution and returned.

Coerces any value to a promise. If it is already a promise, it is returned unchanged.

fluid.promise.follow(source, target)

  • source {Promise} A promise which is to be followed in its resolution.
  • target {Promise} A promise which will follow the source in its resolution. target will receive a call to then causing it to resolve when source resolves, and reject when source rejects.

Chains the resolution methods of one promise (target) so that they follow those of another (source). That is, whenever source resolves, target will resolve, or when source rejects, target will reject, with the same payloads in each case., func)

  • source {Object|Promise} An object or promise whose value is to be mapped by a function (if an object, will be converted first to a promise via fluid.toPromise()).
  • func {Function: ({Any}) → {Any|Promise}} A function which will map the resolved promise value. This function can return either an actual mapped value or a promise whose resolved value is the mapped value.
  • Returns: {Promise} A promise for the resolved mapped value.

Returns a promise whose resolved value is mapped from the source promise or value by the supplied function. If the input value is not a promise, it will be converted first to a promise via fluid.toPromise(). If the input promise rejects, its rejection reason will be propagated unmapped. Examples:

var promiseTwo = fluid.toPromise(2);
var double = function (value) {
    return value * 2;
var promiseFour =, double);
var promiseTwo = fluid.toPromise(2);
var double = function (value) {
    return fluid.promise().resolve(value * 2);
var promiseFour =, double);

Promise algorithms

The only currently implemented promise algorithms are based around a core skeleton operating an array of promises in a linear sequence. These are responsive to an additional element of our promises API, the promise.accumulateRejectionReason "inverse API" described below.

fluid.promise.sequence(sources[, options])

  • sources {Array of {Any|Promise|Function:(options {Object}) → {Any|Promise}}} An array of sources of values or promises which will be evaluated in sequence.
  • options {Object} [optional] A structure of options which will be supplied to function members of sources.

Accepts an array of values, promises, functions returning values or functions returning promises and evaluates them in sequence. Evaluating a value is a no-op which returns the value itself. Note that a standard name for a "function returning a promise" is a task - this implementation can be directly compared to sequence in the when.js library.

In the case that the source element is a function returning a promise (a task), fluid.promise.sequence will ensure that at most one of these in "in flight" at a time - that is, the succeeding function will not be invoked until the promise at the preceding position has resolved.

fluid.promise.fireTransformEvent(event, payload[, options])

  • event {Event} A "pseudoevent" whose listeners are to be treated as successive (asynchronous) stages in the process of transforming a payload.
  • payload {Any} The original payload input to the transforming chain.
  • options {Object} [optional] A set of additional options to be supplied to each listener in the transform chain. Accepts two special options:
    • reverse: {Boolean} If true, the sequence of handlers will be notified in reverse order
    • filterNamespaces: {Array of String} A collection of event namespaces to be filtered out of the processing chain for this particular firing

This is a slightly esoteric but very powerful API. To get a sense of its overall function, it could be compared with the standard pipeline algorithm supplied with when.js - the concept is that an "initial payload" (which may be empty) is successively transformed by sequential, possibly asynchronous, stages of a pipeline of functions. Each function accepts the return value of its predecessor, and may synchronously return a transformed payload, or a promise asynchronously yielding such a payload. It may also of course also return a promise which rejects, terminating the transform chain.

This packaging of the pipeline algorithm is significantly more powerful, since it can call upon the priority feature of standard Infusion events in order to allow processing elements to be integrated together from multiple sources, with each one free to insert themselves at any symbolically identified (by means of before: and after: type constraint priorities) position in the chain.

Each listener to the "transform event" (we call this a "pseudoevent" precisely because each listener does not receive the same argument list as with traditional events, but instead receives the returned and resolved value of its precessor) has the following signature:

  • listener {Function:(previousValue {Any}, options {Object}) → {Any|Promise}} where previousValue is the resolved return from the previous listener notified in the chain, or the initial payload value supplied to fluid.promise.fireTransformEvent if it is the first in the chain, and options is the last argument to fluid.promise.fireTransformEvent.

Inverse API recognised by promises consumed by sequential algorithms

Both fluid.promise.sequence and fluid.promise.fireTransformEvent will recognise the following method supplied by the user on any promise returned by one of the sources in the sequence:


  • error: {Object|Error} A rejection which has been received from a promise "to the right" of this one in a promise sequence.
  • Returns: {Object|Error} A rejection reason which has been "wrapped" or "decorated" in some way in order to add information about the function of this promise. For example, if this promise was intended to resolve by reading a file from the filesystem, the rejection reason could be decorated with a string like "while reading file Xxxxx". It's important that the user's implementation preserves all the information in the original rejection reason - if it contains a string message, it should be prefixed or suffixed with the additional information, or if it contains an error stack, it should be left untouched.

This is a form of "inverse API". The promise API does not implement this method, but it can be implemented by any consumer of promises by adding a function with this signature named accumulateRejectionReason to a promise object. This method is only relevant when consuming a sequence of promises using one of Infusion's sequential promise algorithms.

Let us imagine the promises in a sequence (array) laid out from left to right, in order of sequential execution. This method is called by a sequential promise algorithm when a promise somewhere in the sequence has rejected. Ordinarily, execution would pass directly to the overall rejection handler for the sequence. However, before this happens, the sequence algorithm will pass from right to left* from the point of rejection and inspect each of the promises in that section for an accumulateRejectionReason implementation.

If an implementation is found, it will be called with the current rejection reason as an argument, and the return value will be used as the new rejection reason. The resolution algorithm then continues to the left with this new rejection reason in place, etc. Finally the fully accumulated rejection reason will be dispatched to the overall rejection handler.

What familiar exception-handling pattern from synchronous code does this reproduce? It is the rethrowing pattern, described in the Java context by Bruce Eckel. Some more general commentary is on the "original wiki" at Nested Exception. Thankfully, JavaScript is free of "checked exception specifications" but both the bathwater and baby have been thrown out in that it is also free of exception wrapping. The promises community is still so immature that the lack of this facility has not yet even been characterised. Here is some old-fashioned sequential code illustrating what is going on here:

try {
} catch (e) {
    e.message += " whilst doing what I was doing";
    throw e;

The contents of the catch block correspond to the internals of the accumulateRejectionReason function. Note that this is impossible to emulate with standard promises since there is no reason for the system to revisit a previously seen source of promises to query it for more information. And outside the context of a sequential algorithm this construct has no meaning because there is no natural sense of "before" and "after" (or, correspondingly, "above" and "below" in the call stack) unless the sequential algorithm gives it one. So this facility could only ever be implemented with i) an extension to the base contract of a promise that ii) is recognised specially within the context of a sequential algorithm. This is not possible even in theory with "industry standard promises" since there is no stable concept of "an instance of a promise" - since their object identity is constantly changed after a chaining action.